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PublicationEquity, International Cooperation, and Global Public Health: Use of the Common but Differentiated Responsibilities Principle in the Fight against COVID-19During pandemics, in which harm is universal, states find themselves under an obligation to cooperate within a global solidarity framework. However, because they do not have the same set of capabilities, their obligations should be differentiated and based on equity and distributive justice. As an effective tool of States’ foreign policy, health diplomacy is being used by developing countries according to different priorities and interests. After a few months of relative calm, COVID-19 still poses a major challenge for African and Middle Eastern economies and societies where the vaccination rates are low across the board with healthcare systems in poor shape. If some Gulf countries can be considered exceptions due to active lockdowns, mobility restrictions, and considerable testing, their engagement abroad to help contain the pandemic, especially in North Africa, shows that, if the spirit of cooperation and justice is well taken care of at the regional level, this is not the case at the international level, where global health cooperation would clearly benefit from the application of a type of differentiated treatment such as the one provided by the Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) principle.
PublicationSustainable energy development and nuclear energy legislation in the uae(Springer, 2020)The MENA region has been experiencing the highest population growth rate in the world since the last century. Concomitantly, energy needs in the region are projected to exceed 50% of the current demand in the upcoming two decades. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has become the newest addition to the countries that utilize nuclear energy for electricity production. For MENA countries, UAE constitutes the model in operational and regulatory actions in their pursuit of nuclear power. UAE’s principles of transparency, nonproliferation, safety, and security, as well as its willingness to provide full operational access to international organizations, have been the key factors for this development. This study analyzes UAE’s regulatory framework with the emphasis on the organizational structure of FANR, the country’s nuclear regulatory body. Comparisons are made with USA and France, which have mature institutional structures and suggestions are provided for improving FANR’s organizational chart. Our article also discusses issues of independence and accountability of regulatory bodies, pertinent to MENA countries’ agencies.
PublicationConstitutions et lois fondamentales des pays arabesCet ouvrage collectif sur les Constitutions et Lois fondamentales des pays arabes : offre au lecteur un portrait de chaque Constitution, englobant ses principes, ses règles et ses procédures, ainsi que quelques éléments de réflexion quant à la possibilité de l’émergence d’un patrimoine constitutionnel propre au Monde arabe. plus qu’un état des lieux, l’ouvrage entend inscrire la réflexion dans la durée en proposant des clés de lecture sur les enjeux juridiques et leurs corollaires politiques ou sociétaux. Il a pour ambition de proposer une analyse pour une connaissance étayée des systèmes juridiques arabes. Dans cette optique, la Constitution, ou Loi fondamentale selon les appellations consacrées, constitue un accès à la connaissance d’un projet de société, c’est non seulement le projet constitutionnel ou la vision politique, mais encore l’ambition de l’Etat de s’inscrire dans l’histoire collective et, plus largement, dans la société globalisée. Ainsi le lecteur trouvera pour chacun des vingtdeux pays la source avec la version originale en langue arabe et la version traduite en français ou en anglais de leur Constitution ou Loi fondamentale, précédée d’une présentation commentée. A
PublicationGreywater reuse in the water-scarce Gulf RegionTreated wastewater has emerged in many countries as a component of the water stream and a way to supplement, primarily, landscape and agricultural irrigation. Several European and Asian states have, in addition, promoted the use of greywater in the interior of buildings. Regulations for greywater reuse are, by and large, not in place and quality standards for different types of application are in evolution. At the same time constructed wetlands as stand-Alone or as part of the wastewater treatment system have shown promise as a way to improve wastewater effluent, while upgrading ecosystem and aesthetic aspects of a site. Gulf countries, such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are faced with natural water scarcity, exorbitant water demands, beyond their renewable resources and desalination capacities, overloaded wastewater treatment systems that have resulted in releases of untreated wastewater in the marine environment, and increasing populations and expanded economic activities that would further accentuate existing water problems. The current article discusses these issues and, given the public reluctance in the UAE to accept interior greywater reuse, it focuses on the applicability of constructed wetlands in the Gulf region and their potential to enhance irrigation streams and landscape appeal.