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  • Publication
    Drone Detection with Improved Precision in Traditional Machine Learning and Less Complexity in Single Shot Detectors
    (2024)
    Kassab, Mohamad
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    Barbaresco, Frederic
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    Seghrouchni, Amal El Fallah
    This work presents a broad study of drone detection based on a variety of machine-learning methods including traditional and deep-learning techniques. The data sets used are images obtained from sequences of video frames in both RGB and IR formats, filtered and unfiltered. First, traditional machine learning techniques such as SVM and RF were investigated to discover their drawbacks and study their feasibility in drone detection. It was evident that those techniques are not suitable for complex data sets (sets with several non-drone objects and clutter in the background). It was observed that the sliding window size results in a bias toward the selection of the bounding box when using the traditional NMS method. Therefore, to address this issue, a modified NMS is proposed and tested on SVM and RF. SVM and RF with modified NMS managed to achieve a relative improvement of up to 25% based on the evaluation metric. The Deep Learning techniques, on the other hand, showed better detection performance but less improvement when using the proposed NMS method. Since their biggest drawback is complexity, a modified deep learning paradigm was proposed to mitigate the usual complexity associated with deep learning methods. The proposed paradigm uses (Single Shot Detector) SSD and AdderNet filters in an attempt to avoid excessive multiplications in the convolutional layers. To demonstrate our method, the most common deep-learning techniques were comparatively tested to create a baseline for evaluating the proposed SSD/AdderNet. The training and testing of the deep learning models were repeated six times to investigate the consistency of learning in terms of parameters and performance. The proposed model was able to achieve better results with respect to the IR data set compared to its counterpart while reducing the number of multiplications at the convolutional layers by 43.42%. Moreover, and as a result of lower complexity, the proposed SSD/AdderNet showed fewer training and inference times compared to its counterpart.
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  • Publication
    Urban Growth, Migration and Social Diversification in the Arab-Persian Gulf
    With the development of oil exploration and production around the Arabo-Persian Gulf from the end of World-War II, the towns linked with this activity have experienced a rapid growth, leading to the significant changes in pre-existed urban hierarchy. This article aims to describe and analyse the process of growth of all the cities and towns located on the two sides of the Gulf. During the last few years, the urban growth appears to be linked with new urban policies using oil revenues for building a post-oil economy. Divided between rich social groups constituted by local families and highly qualified migrants, often North-Americans on one side and on the other side poor workers, mainly Asians, far from their family and on temporary contracts along with various social groups of new migrants. The present analysis pinpoints the importance of a large and hierarchized middle class as well as a large popular class in the social fabrics, which determine local social life as well as consumption pattern. It demonstrates the social complexity of the society in large urban agglomerations of the Gulf countries, which are getting strongly integrated with the globalization process and benefitted by large investments from the states and international companies. It also shows how the middle and small towns are greatly marginalised in this lopsided development process.
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  • Publication
    Erratum to: Recent Advances of Chimp Optimization Algorithm: Variants and Applications
    (2023)
    Daoud, Mohammad Sh.
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    Shehab, Mohammad
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    Abualigah, Laith
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    Alshinwan, Mohammad
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    Abd Elaziz, Mohamed
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    Shambour, Mohd Khaled Yousef
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    Oliva, Diego
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    Alia, Mohammad A.
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      1
  • Publication
    Optimazting Dynamics for Voluntry Retirement and Sustainable Living
    (2023)
    Aldulaimi, Saeed Hameed
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    Abdeldayem, Marwan
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    Abu-AlSondos, Ibrahim A.
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    Ahmed, Mohamed Alsayed Haider
    The current study aims to investigate the role of voluntary retirement decisions by employees of governmental sector in the Bahrain on sustainable living, particularly on the level of financial balance and quality of life. Investigate whether the results of the motives of the voluntary retirement decision on the quality of life of government sector employees. The Methodology used in this study is the descriptive-analytical study. Findings revealed that the main reason/motive for voluntary retirement was personal and health and psychological motives. Also, the causes of the voluntary retirement decision and the financial balance are positively correlated. The motives of the voluntary retirement decision and the quality of life are positively correlated. The financial motives were the most influential dimension of the voluntary retirement decision on the quality of life. The study recommends improving the conditions of voluntary retirement employees of government sector and handing more roles and responsibilities mainly to those with long years of experience to run the work and involve them in the decision-making process to motivate them at work.
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      1128
  • Publication
    The Late Holocene evolution of the Black Sea – a critical view on the so-called Phanagorian regression
    (2012) ;
    Porotov, Alexey
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    Kelterbaum, Daniel
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    Brückner, Helmut
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    Dikarev, Vassily
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    Lericolais, Gilles
    Throughout its geologic history, the Black Sea experienced major sea level changes accompanied by severe environmental modifications, including geomorphologic reshaping. The most spectacular changes were driven by the Quaternary glaciations and deglaciations that reflect responses to Milankovitch cycles of 100 and 20 ky periodicity. Major sea level changes were also considered for a shorter and more recent cyclicity. The concept of the Phanagorian re- and transgression cycle, supposedly with a minimum sea level stand of 5-6 m below its present position in the middle of the 1 st millennium BC, was established in 1963 by Fedorov for the Black Sea region. It was based on archaeological and palaeogeographical research conducted around the ancient Greek colonies of the Cimmerian Bosporus, in particular at the name giving site of Phanagoria, where underwater prospection had revealed the presence of a large number of submerged relics of the Classical Greek era. Analyses of sediment cores as well as 14C-dated fossil coastal bars in the western and southern parts of Taman Peninsula show that contemporary coastal bars are related to different sea levels. The dissymmetry can reach up to 6 m around 500 BC. This and more evidence from drill cores confirms that on Taman Peninsula many of the apparent sea level changes are tectonically induced. The subsidence may have been initiated by the release of gas from mud volcanoes inherited along anticline axes. Other observations around the Black Sea confirm that submerged archaeological sites correspond to areas where subsidence has taken places, while the so-called Holocene highstand - said to have been located above the present-day sea level - is associated with uplift areas (triggered by the ongoing Caucasus orogeny). Recent oceanographic research carried out in the Black Sea area shows that since the Black Sea was reconnected with the Mediterranean Sea (i.e., 7500 14C BP at the latest), both marine water bodies have been in equilibrium. This fact and arguments from archaeology, history, hydrodynamics etc. lead us to question the existence of the Phanagorian regression. It is important to note that none of the sea level curves established for the (eastern) Mediterranean shows a comparable regression/transgression cycle of several metres during the 1 st millennium BC.
    Scopus© Citations 29  1046  73
  • Publication
    Non-linear relationship between real commodity price volatility and real effective exchange rate: The case of commodity-exporting countries
    (2019) ;
    Guillaumin, Cyriac
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    Silanine, Alexandre
    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by exploring the relationship between the real commodity price volatilities and the real effective exchange rate (REER) of commodity-exporting countries, taking into account the transition variable of financial market integration. To this end, we consider a sample of 42 commodity-exporting countries subdivided into 4 panels: food and beverages, energy, metals, and raw materials. Our results highlight that the relationship between real commodity price volatility and REER is non-linear and depends on the degree of financialization of the commodity market. Specifically, when a country is poorly integrated financially, the volatility of the real commodity price has a strong and negative impact on the variation in REER. However, for periods when a country is better integrated financially, we observe a decrease in the impact of real commodity price volatility on REER, especially for the two panels of food and beverages as well as energy. Our findings also highlight the growth of financialization of commodities post-2000, particularly in the case of the energy sector.
    Scopus© Citations 19  851
  • Publication
    Coral Reefs of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Analysis of Management Approaches in Light of International Best Practices and a Changing Climate
    (2020) ;
    Perry, Richard John Obrien
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    Al Blooshi, Ayesha Yousef
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    Ghedira, Hosni
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    Jabado, Rima W.
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    Marpu, Prashanth Reddy
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    Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.
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    Grandcourt, Edwin Mark
    The coasts and islands that flank Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates (UAE)’s largest emirate, host the country’s most significant coastal and marine habitats including coral reefs. These reefs, although subject to a variety of pressures from urban and industrial encroachment and climate change, exhibit the highest thresholds for coral bleaching and mortality in the world. By reviewing and benchmarking global, regional and local coral reef conservation efforts, this study highlights the ecological importance and economic uniqueness of the UAE corals in light of the changing climate. The analysis provides a set of recommendations for coral reef management that includes an adapted institutional framework bringing together stakeholders, scientists, and managers. These recommendations are provided to guide coral reef conservation efforts regionally and in jurisdictions with comparable environmental challenges.
    Scopus© Citations 3  801  62
  • Publication
    The globalization of social sciences? Evidence from a quantitative analysis of 30 years of production, collaboration and citations in the social sciences (1980-2009)
    (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2014) ;
    Gingras, Y.
    This article addresses the issue of internationalization of social sciences by studying the evolution of production (of academic articles), collaboration and citations patterns among main world regions over the period 1980-2009 using the SSCI. The results confirm the centre-periphery model and indicate that the centrality of the two major regions that are North America and Europe is largely unchallenged, Europe having become more important and despite the growing development of Asian social sciences. The authors' quantitative approach shows that the growing production in the social sciences but also the rise of international collaborations between regions have not led to a more homogeneous circulation of the knowledge produced by different regions, or to a substantial increase in the visibility of the contributions produced by peripheral regions. Social scientists from peripheral regions, while producing more papers in the core journals compiled by the SSCI, have a stronger tendency to cite journals from the two central regions, thus losing at least partially their more locally embedded references, and to collaborate more with western social scientists. In other words, the dynamic of internationalization of social science research may also lead to a phagocytosis of the periphery into the two major centers, which brings with it the danger of losing interest in the local objects specific to those peripheral regions. © The Author(s) 2013.
    Scopus© Citations 80  719  100