Logarithmic spiral search based arithmetic optimization algorithm with selective mechanism and its application to functional electrical stimulation system control
A biomedical application of a novel metaheuristic optimizer is proposed in this paper by constructing an enhanced arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA). The latter algorithm was constructed using the logarithmic spiral (Ls) search mechanism from the whale optimization algorithm and the greedy selection scheme from the differential evolution algorithm. The proposed algorithm (Ls-AOA) was tested against unimodal and multimodal benchmark functions and demonstrated better capability comparatively using other efficient metaheuristic algorithms reported in the literature. The constructed Ls-AOA algorithm was then proposed to design a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller employed in a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for the first time. The initial statistical and convergence profile assessment showed better performance of the proposed algorithm. The comparative analyses for transient and frequency responses were performed for the PID-controlled FES system using the original AOA, sine–cosine and particle swarm optimization algorithms and the traditional Ziegler-Nichols tuning scheme. Similarly, the FES system tuned with the latter methods was also assessed for disturbance rejection and noise elimination. All the comparative analyses demonstrated that the proposed Ls-AOA has the greater capability for the challenging biomedical FES system.