Optimized ensemble deep learning framework for scalable forecasting of dynamics containing extreme events
Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science
The remarkable flexibility and adaptability of both deep learning models and ensemble methods have led to the proliferation for their application in understanding many physical phenomena. Traditionally, these two techniques have largely been treated as independent methodologies in practical applications. This study develops an optimized ensemble deep learning framework wherein these two machine learning techniques are jointly used to achieve synergistic improvements in model accuracy, stability, scalability, and reproducibility, prompting a new wave of applications in the forecasting of dynamics. Unpredictability is considered one of the key features of chaotic dynamics; therefore, forecasting such dynamics of nonlinear systems is a relevant issue in the scientific community. It becomes more challenging when the prediction of extreme events is the focus issue for us. In this circumstance, the proposed optimized ensemble deep learning (OEDL) model based on a best convex combination of feed-forward neural networks, reservoir computing, and long short-term memory can play a key role in advancing predictions of dynamics consisting of extreme events. The combined framework can generate the best out-of-sample performance than the individual deep learners and standard ensemble framework for both numerically simulated and real-world data sets. We exhibit the outstanding performance of the OEDL framework for forecasting extreme events generated from a Liénard-type system, prediction of COVID-19 cases in Brazil, dengue cases in San Juan, and sea surface temperature in the Niño 3.4 region.