Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Associative memory retrieval modulates upcoming perceptual decisions
    (2023)
    Bornstein, Aaron M.
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    Aly, Mariam
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    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.
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    Norman, Kenneth A.
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    Cohen, Jonathan D.
    Expectations can inform fast, accurate decisions. But what informs expectations? Here we test the hypothesis that expectations are set by dynamic inference from memory. Participants performed a cue-guided perceptual decision task with independently-varying memory and sensory evidence. Cues established expectations by reminding participants of past stimulus-stimulus pairings, which predicted the likely target in a subsequent noisy image stream. Participant’s responses used both memory and sensory information, in accordance to their relative reliability. Formal model comparison showed that the sensory inference was best explained when its parameters were set dynamically at each trial by evidence sampled from memory. Supporting this model, neural pattern analysis revealed that responses to the probe were modulated by the specific content and fidelity of memory reinstatement that occurred before the probe appeared. Together, these results suggest that perceptual decisions arise from the continuous sampling of memory and sensory evidence.
      1Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Electric Load Probability Density Estimation using Root-Transformed Local Linear Regression
    (2023)
    Elhouty, Begad B.
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    El-Fouly, Tarek H. M.
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    Zahawi, Bashar
    Probability density estimation of stochastic electric load is of importance nowadays in power system operations and urban planning due to the uncertainties in network demand that affects the operating states of power systems. This in turn requires accurate and reliable methods to estimate network loads, especially in distribution networks. This paper proposes employing the root-unroot method in combination with local linear regression for estimating electric load probability density. Using measured load data obtained for a range of commercial enterprises, the performance of the proposed model is compared with two kernel density estimation models and two traditional parametric models (Gaussian and Gamma) and is assessed using a variety of error metrics and statistical tests. Results confirm the accuracy of the nonparametric models over the parametric models with the root transform model performing the best across all error metrics and K-S goodness-of-fit test.
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  • Publication
    Heart Rate Variability Analysis Reveals a Non-monotonic Relationship between Humanin Concentration and Cardiac Autonomic Regulation
    (2022) ;
    Yousef, Hibba
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    Khandoker, Ahsan H.
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    Tarvainen, Mika P.
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    Jelinek, Herbert F.
    Oxidative stress (OS) has been shown to have a negative effect on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and on ANS modulation of heart rate. Mitochondrial ATP production is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence the regulation of ROS becomes an important issue in maintaining optimal ANS functionality. Humanin (HN), a mitochondrial-derived peptide, plays an important role in lowering OS. Sympathovagal balance was assessed in 124 healthy participants through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and compared across changes in HN concentrations divided into quintiles, with values of HN ranging from 64.6 to 343.2 pg/mL. Significant differences included various frequency domain and nonlinear HRV parameters, particularly between first and fourth HN quintiles with p values < 0.001 for recurrence plot analysis (RPA), detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) a1 and Poincaré plot ratio SD1/SD2. The results revealed non-monotonic relationships between measures of HRV and HN concentration. A mitohormetic type of relationship was observed with HRV features increasing and then decreasing with increasing HN concentration. These results are consistent with previous findings of the importance of HN levels in regulating OS and extend these by revealing a concomitant effect on the modulation of cardiac rhythm by the ANS.
      40Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    Inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the progression of type II diabetes mellitus with coexisting hypertension
    (2023)
    Yousef, Hibba
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    Khandoker, Ahsan H.
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    Helf, Charlotte
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    Jelinek, Herbert F.
    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that poses a serious health concern worldwide due to its rising prevalence. Hypertension (HT) is a frequent comorbidity of T2DM, with the co-occurrence of both conditions increasing the risk of diabetes-associated complications. Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) have been identified as leading factors in the development and progression of both T2DM and HT. However, OS and inflammation processes associated with these two comorbidities are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore changes in the levels of plasma and urinary inflammatory and OS biomarkers, along with mitochondrial OS biomarkers connected to mitochondrial dysfunction (MitD). These markers may provide a more comprehensive perspective associated with disease progression from no diabetes, and prediabetes, to T2DM coexisting with HT in a cohort of patients attending a diabetes health clinic in Australia.
      5Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    Transfer learning for genotype–phenotype prediction using deep learning models
    (2022) ;
    Muneeb, Muhammad
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    Henschel, Andreas
    Background For some understudied populations, genotype data is minimal for genotype-phenotype prediction. However, we can use the data of some other large populations to learn about the disease-causing SNPs and use that knowledge for the genotype-phenotype prediction of small populations. This manuscript illustrated that transfer learning is applicable for genotype data and genotype-phenotype prediction. Results Using HAPGEN2 and PhenotypeSimulator, we generated eight phenotypes for 500 cases/500 controls (CEU, large population) and 100 cases/100 controls (YRI, small populations). We considered 5 (4 phenotypes) and 10 (4 phenotypes) different risk SNPs for each phenotype to evaluate the proposed method. The improved accuracy with transfer learning for eight different phenotypes was between 2 and 14.2 percent. The two-tailed p-value between the classification accuracies for all phenotypes without transfer learning and with transfer learning was 0.0306 for five risk SNPs phenotypes and 0.0478 for ten risk SNPs phenotypes. Conclusion The proposed pipeline is used to transfer knowledge for the case/control classification of the small population. In addition, we argue that this method can also be used in the realm of endangered species and personalized medicine. If the large population data is extensive compared to small population data, expect transfer learning results to improve significantly. We show that Transfer learning is capable to create powerful models for genotype-phenotype predictions in large, well-studied populations and fine-tune these models to populations were data is sparse.
      36Scopus© Citations 4