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PublicationRelative Sea-Level Changes on the Southwestern Arabian Gulf since the Last Glacial MaximumSeveral works have been carried out regarding Late Pleistocene–Holocene sea-level changes in the Arabian Gulf. Nevertheless, a global and regional approach is still lacking, and some critical issues remain unsolved. In this paper, a review and a reinterpretation of all published data regarding sea-level changes in the area have been completed and compared with new results obtained from fieldworks carried out in Failaka Island, Kuwait, and in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. This work relies mostly on studying geomorphological sea-level indicators, such as beach rocks and beach ridges besides combining archaeological data. Results show different trends in vertical movement within the studied area since the Last Glacial Maximum, which cannot be explained alone by the existing sea-level model, implying different, specific and local factors, such as tectonic deformations and diapirism.
PublicationHolocene relative sea-level variations and archeological implications, Abu Dhabi western region, United Arab EmiratesNew results from fieldwork in the western region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi showed meaningful differences in relative sea-level variations during Holocene and recorded unknown late marine highstands. These dynamics may have induced important environmental changes and affected human settlement. Surveys have been carried out in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in order to construct local sea-level variations. These results rely on identifying, characterizing, and dating sea-level indicators and particularly beachrocks. Two main areas were studied: Ghagha island and Ras Khumays peninsula. Data obtained from our surveys highlight significant differences and suggest local processes that need to be understood. From an archeological perspective, this work helps to better understand human settlement dynamic through the Holocene.
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PublicationGeomorphological changes in the coastal area of Farasan Al-Kabir Island (Saudi Arabia) since mid Holocene based on a multi-proxy approachThe geomorphological evolution of the southeastern coastal area of Farasan Al-Kabir Island (Saudi Arabia) is revealed by the mapping of modern landforms and a multi-proxy and high spatial resolution study including grain size, particulate organic carbon, mineralogy, element geochemistry, benthic foraminifera analysis and radiocarbon dating of a 3.3-m long sediment core. The modern geomorphological features comprise a variety of arid landforms, such as plateau, cliffs and pediments of Pleistocene coral limestones, playa depressions located on plateau surfaces, alluvial fans, butte and sandy beaches. The mid Holocene evolution of the borehole area is resulted from the detailed analysis of five sedimentary units detected along the core Matar-1, and includes three distinct stages: (a) from 5253 ± 223 y cal BP to 3138 ± 223 y cal BP, carbonate coarse-grained material consisting of coral fragments, molluscs, calcareous algae and benthic foraminifera are deposited on a shallow marine fringing reefal platform, which becomes progressively a nearshore backreef (around 3675 ± 215 y cal BP), and later (around 3138 ± 223 y cal BP) a reef ramp; (b) since 3040 ± 220 y cal BP the borehole area obtains the characteristics of a high-energy beach that receives increasing inputs of terrigenous material; (c) subsequently, a supratidal backshore setting is established influenced mostly by terrestrial processes and occasionally by marine processes, as it is indicated by the decreasing and sometimes sporadic presence of benthic foraminifera, and recently, a sedimentary veneer consisting of terrigenous, carbonate and evaporite material is formed by terrestrial, mainly wadi and aeolian, processes. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA
Scopus© Citations 5 191
PublicationPleistocene uplift evidences and geomorphological processes, along the Daghmar-Dibbab coastal area, (NE Oman)The study coastal area between Daghmar and Dibab (NE Oman) was uplifted up to 200 m due to different tectonic processes which can be detected on different elevations of the coastal teracces cascading. The teracces formed due to Neogene to Quaternary tectonic movements which continued into the Upper Pleistocene and may be active during the Holocene. The combination of methods such as geodatabase creation, multi-criteria analysis of the landforms through the processing of the study's area DEM, field work-samplings and laboratory analysis (XRF, thin sections, dating's, OSL-14C), combined with semi-automated geomorphological mapping and the differential GPS profiles and measurements, and SAR interferometry (InSAR), contributed in the data processing. The results of the multi proxy and interdisciplinary methodological approach are used as tools for understanding the geomorphological evolution of the Neogene to Quaternary landscape, where landforms are presented as indicators of the area's evolution and define the processes that formed the current situation of the relief. At least three tectonic terraces were detected. A karstified planation surface of Eocene rocks is well developed. This planation surface is attached to the marineterraces and marks an elevation of 160-135m. The mapped terraces (depending on the locations) are at altitudes of about 120-90m. (T3), 75-45 m. (T2) and 35-20 m. (T1) with their foreheads (cliffs) vary in elevations from 15 to 30m. The preliminary results of this study area indicate an along strike the terraces, divided into different at least two tectonic blocks, with estimated uplift rate from 2.3mm/year (northern part) to 2.9 mm/year (southern part) respectively. The blocks are separated by perpendicular to the terraces striking faults. However, the kinematic of faults ,i.e. normal, reverse or strike-slip, could not be estimates Uplift and the sedimentary cover of the terraces (e.g. conglomerates, screes) confirm a swift transformation of the coastline area form at least the MIS 3 (24-59 ka) until the mid-late Holocene, accepting the global sea level chnanges.
PublicationMARITIME DELIMITATION IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE PACIFIC OCEAN (COSTA RICA V. NICARAGUA) EXPERT OPINION( 2017)
;Gutiérrez, Francisco1. On 25 February 2014, the Republic of Costa Rica (hereinafter “Costa Rica”) filed an Application with the International Court of Justice (hereinafter “the Court”) against the Republic of Nicaragua (hereinafter “Nicaragua”), requesting the Court “to determine the complete course of a single maritime boundary between all the maritime areas appertaining, respectively, to Costa Rica and to Nicaragua in the Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean, on the basis of international law”. 2. Costa Rica “further request[ed] the Court to determine the precise geographical co-ordinates of the single maritime boundaries in the Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean”. 3. In the Memorial, Costa Rica claims that the starting-point of the maritime delimitation between the Parties on the Caribbean side is “on the right bank of the San Juan River at its mouth” (para. 4.13). In the Counter-Memorial, Nicaragua contends that the starting-point is situated at the extremity of Punta de Castilla, near the north-eastern corner of Harbor Head Lagoon (para. 3.48), 3.59 km east of that suggested by Costa Rica. 4. The Court, considering that there were certain factual matters relating to the state of the coast between the point suggested by Costa Rica and the point suggested by Nicaragua in their pleadings as the starting-point of the maritime boundary in the Caribbean Sea, which might be relevant for the purpose of settling the dispute submitted to it, and that, with regard to such matters, it would benefit from an expert opinion, decided, in an Order dated 31 May 2016, that “[a]n expert opinion shall be obtained, which will be entrusted to two independent experts appointed by Order of the President of the Court after hearing the Parties”. 5. In its Order of 31 May 2016, the Court also decided that: “(2) The experts referred … above shall visit the site. They shall advise the Court regarding the state of the coast between the point suggested by Costa Rica and the point suggested by Nicaragua in their pleadings as the starting-point of the maritime boundary in the Caribbean Sea, and in particular answer the following questions: (a) What are the geographical co-ordinates of the point at which the right bank of the San Juan River meets the sea at the low-water line? (b) What are the geographical co-ordinates of the land point which most closely approximates to that identified by the first Alexander Award as the starting-point of the land boundary? (c) Is there a bank of sand or any maritime feature between the points referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b) above? If so, what are their physical characteristics? In particular, are these features, or some of them, permanently above water, even at high tide? Is Los Portillos/Harbor Head Lagoon separated from the sea? (d) To what extent is it possible, or probable, that the area concerned will undergo major physical changes in the short and long term?” 6. The authors of the present Report were appointed by an Order of the President of the Court dated 16 June 2016. 282 4
PublicationPaleochannels of Zerafshan Delta (Boukhara oasis, Uzbekistan): First Luminescence datings(Elsevier Masson SAS, 2017)
; ;Rante, R. ;Porto, E.Zink, A.J.C.An ongoing study on the Zerafshan delta, which now forms the double oasis of Bukhara and Qaraqöl, provides an understanding of urban evolution in a semi-arid environment linked to water resources management. In order to determine the chronology of the paleo-channels, a first series of OSL datings was undertaken. With the exception of one branch dating from the last glacial maximum, the others were active from the Neolithic to the early Bronze Age, with a general movement from north-east to south-west. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS 74
PublicationDynamics of human settlements ensuing from river transformation and changes in commercial behaviour: The birth of the “North-eastern Silk Road”(Elsevier Ltd, 2016)
;Rante, R. ;Mirzaakhmedov, D.This article focuses on the causes and dynamics of the origin of the caravan path linking Iranian cities to those of Central Asia from the northeast, to be more precise linking Nishapur and Merv to Bukhara and further to Samarkand, and thus overall linking Iran to China. It proposes to elucidate the causes and effects, which occurred after the appearance of what we could call the main arm of the Silk Road. After an analysis of the historical sources mentioning caravan routes crossing eastern Iran, Merv and Central Asia, this article presents the recent geo-archaeological results of the Archaeological Mission of the Bukhara Oasis (MAFOUB). Recent geomorphological discoveries have brought to light important morphological changes of the Zerafšan delta, to which are imputed major changes in human settlements and behaviours. By the 4th century BCE a huge human occupation of the oasis took place, which slightly later engendered a dynamic of massive urbanisation, rendering possible the connections between China and the Mediterranean Sea directly crossing the Bukhara Oasis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Scopus© Citations 2 161
PublicationHolocene lithostratigraphy and its implementation in the geoarchaeological research of the Athenian Basin, GreeceThe Athenian Basin is a very interesting area from an archaeological point of view, since it is inhabited from Neolithic time. The human impact on the landscape is shown by the ancient constructions such as the Long Walls and the canalization of the rivers in the area of the Athenian Basin and Piraeus. The aim of the study is to detect the paleogeographical evolution of this area. In order to manipulate all the available information obtained from literature review (topographic maps, geological maps, ancient maps and references) and the stratigraphic data from 227 boreholes from the Athenian Basin, a GIS database was established. After the interpretation of the stratigraphy from the boreholes, six lithostratigraphic units were defined. Maps and 3D models were designed to represent the succession of the lithostratigraphy of each period. Paleogeographic maps were created in order to represent the landscape for each lithostratigraphic unit of the Athenian basin, and extract results for the temporal and spatial changes of the paleo-landscape and the involvement of the human impact on the depositional process in the Athenian Basin during Holocene. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Scopus© Citations 1 151