Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Comprehensive assessment of the capacity of sand and sandstone from aquifer vadose zone for the removal of heavy metals and dissolved organic
    (2023)
    Ali, Jisha
    ;
    Ghaleb, Hala
    ;
    Arangadi, Abdul
    ;
    Le, Tu Phuong Pham
    ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    ;
    ;
    Alhseinat, Emad
    Due to the drastic effect of produced water on the environment and its large quantity produced by the oil and gas industry, produced water treatment is a significantly growing challenge that requires serious attention. Produced water can be used as unconventional source of water in arid regions for underground water aquifer recharging through soil aquifer treatment (SAT), however, this requires sophisticated studies to avoid the contamination of the underground water. The present study investigates the efficacy of sand and sandstone from aquifer vadose zone for removing heavy metals and dissolved organic that are common contaminants in oil produced water. The removal of performance of soil samples has been evaluated on the laboratory scale at neutral pH at room temperature using synthetic oil produced water which contains heavy metals (Ni and Zn) and dissolved organics (phenol). The various experimental parameters were monitored and results indicated the sandstone displayed the highest removal of 98%–99% for both heavy metals and 26% for phenol than sand. The experimental data were fitted using four isotherm models, the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the Freundlich isotherm, the Temkin isotherm model and the D–R isotherm. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted well in a monolayer adsorption conceptual model on sand and sandstone. Kinetic modelling and analysis indicated that both soil samples followed the pseudo-second- order kinetics for metal ions and phenol. The 2D-COS FTIR was applied to analyse the interaction mechanism between the contaminants and sand and sandstone particles. The asymmetric Si–O band in sand minerals plays the prime response in Ni and Zn removal mechanisms whereas the asymmetric CO2− 3 band decides for the removal mechanisms in sandstone. In the case of phenol adsorption, the interaction between phenol and Si–O bond is the predominant mechanism. Overall, these results summarize that sand and sandstone are effective for heavy metals removal than dissolved organic compounds.
      6
  • Publication
    Hyperspectral mapping of crust and mantle rocks in the UAE Al-Hajar mountains: Locating raw materials for Martian regolith simulants
    (2021) ;
    Ioannou, Zach
    ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    Hyperspectral mapping of crust and mantle rocks in the UAE Al-Hajar mountains: Locating raw materials for Martian regolith simulants. The objective of the present study is to identify rock lithologies which can be used to produce Mars regolith simulants. It is well known from Curiosity Rover data, that mafic and ultramafic components are the main constituents of the Martian surface regolith (Blake et al. 2013). We have acquired 9 rock samples taken from different locations and rock outcrops located in the Fujairah, Sharjah and Dubai emirates of the UAE and used to obtain crustal (mafic) and mantle (ultramafic) rock spectral signatures (Philips et al. 2006, Thomas et al. 2006). The samples are analyzed using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction techniques. Based on their mineralogical composition and characteristics we distinguished two main categories of rocks, close to the Hatta and Kahir areas. The analysis showed a range of SiO2 compatible with ultramafic to mafic rocks (43-46% ±1%) in the Hatta area and some samples with extreme high (73%±1%) or low (21%±1%) values of SiO2. The aforementioned extreme concentrations are possibly correlated to sedimentary or metasedimentary rocks. The mineralogy in the Hatta area comprised mainly of pyroxene and plagioclase and some amorphous material while the metasedimentary rocks are mainly rich in calcite and quartz. The Kahir area samples are showing a SiO2 content between ultramafic to mafic rocks (39-49% ±1%). The mineralogy in the Kahir samples comprised of pyroxene and plagioclase and in several samples the ultramafic rocks are exhibiting strong serpentinization (serpentine mineral). In addition to ground investigations, we have also mapped the extended regions that surround the areas of our rock samples using hyperspectral imagery obtained in 2009 and 2011 by the Hyperion instrument on the Earth Obserbation-1 (EO-1) satellite. Feature extraction and hyperspectral classification such as the supervised Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) methods are carried out to map the different lithologies in the extended regions of interest. We combine the ground truth spectral classification of our samples with the hyperspectral classification of the wider area to improve the accuracy of the mineral map around the Hatta and Kahir regions.
      21
  • Publication
    Karst development in different tectonic settings (Middle East, Greece, South China), concept analysis and first findings towards hydrology modeling reconsideration
    (2022) ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    ;
    Fassoulas, Charalambos
    ;
    Mattern, Frank
    ;
    Scharf, Andreas
    ;
    Yu, Xuan
    ;
    Pennos, Christos
    ;
    Adamopoulos, Kostas
    ;
    Zacharias, Stylianos
    ;
    Hamdan, Hamdan
    ;
    Nikolaidis, Nikolaos
      27  61
  • Publication
    Pleistocene uplift evidences and geomorphological processes, along the Daghmar-Dibbab coastal area, (NE Oman)
    (2018) ; ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    ;
    Scharf, Andreas
    The study coastal area between Daghmar and Dibab (NE Oman) was uplifted up to 200 m due to different tectonic processes which can be detected on different elevations of the coastal teracces cascading. The teracces formed due to Neogene to Quaternary tectonic movements which continued into the Upper Pleistocene and may be active during the Holocene. The combination of methods such as geodatabase creation, multi-criteria analysis of the landforms through the processing of the study's area DEM, field work-samplings and laboratory analysis (XRF, thin sections, dating's, OSL-14C), combined with semi-automated geomorphological mapping and the differential GPS profiles and measurements, and SAR interferometry (InSAR), contributed in the data processing. The results of the multi proxy and interdisciplinary methodological approach are used as tools for understanding the geomorphological evolution of the Neogene to Quaternary landscape, where landforms are presented as indicators of the area's evolution and define the processes that formed the current situation of the relief. At least three tectonic terraces were detected. A karstified planation surface of Eocene rocks is well developed. This planation surface is attached to the marineterraces and marks an elevation of 160-135m. The mapped terraces (depending on the locations) are at altitudes of about 120-90m. (T3), 75-45 m. (T2) and 35-20 m. (T1) with their foreheads (cliffs) vary in elevations from 15 to 30m. The preliminary results of this study area indicate an along strike the terraces, divided into different at least two tectonic blocks, with estimated uplift rate from 2.3mm/year (northern part) to 2.9 mm/year (southern part) respectively. The blocks are separated by perpendicular to the terraces striking faults. However, the kinematic of faults ,i.e. normal, reverse or strike-slip, could not be estimates Uplift and the sedimentary cover of the terraces (e.g. conglomerates, screes) confirm a swift transformation of the coastline area form at least the MIS 3 (24-59 ka) until the mid-late Holocene, accepting the global sea level chnanges.
      101  57
  • Publication
    Preliminary Tectonostratigraphy results from the Small Trocharis mountain, north-east Lefka Ori, Western Crete
    (2022) ;
    Leontaritis, A.
    ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    ;
    Fassoulas, C
    ;
    Alzhra, F
    ;
    Khan, H
    ;
    Scharf, Andreas
    ;
    Vaxevanopoulos, M
    ;
    Adamopoulos, K
    ;
    Digenis, Markos
    ;
    Pennos, Christos
    ;
    Nikolaidis, Nikolaos
    Preliminary tectonostratigraphy results from the Small Trocharis mountain, north-east Lefka Ori, western Crete. Highlight Here we describe our mapping results, for the updated stratigraphy of the Plattenkalk unit, and the tectonic contacts in Small Trocharis Mountain at northeast Lefka Ori of the island of Crete. The most prominent finding is that in the northeast , close to the peak of Ag Pneuma Melidoniou the thin bedded marble with silex (upper Jurassic-Eocene) is overlain by the upper Triassic to lower Jurassic white marble (Plattenkalk unit, both) and the contact between them appears as a primary conformable depositional contact. The previous shows a possible overturned structure. Background and Objective Nikolaidis et al. (2013) estimated the capacity of the karstic aquifer at 500x10 6 m 3 for the Koiliaris watershed and the associated extended karstified area outside the watershed. The extended karst area is delineated in the region of the two deepest caves (sinkholes) in Greece, the Liontari (1100 m deep) and the Gourgouthakas caves (1208 m deep). Our study covers the extended karstic watershed. The objective of this work, under the IGCP-715 project, is to update our existing understanding of the geological model in the area and as well as to provide detailed lithological and structural insights for the extended karst area.
      24  7
  • Publication
    Quaternary Thrusting in the Central Oman Mountains-Novel Observations and Causes: Insights from Optical Stimulate Luminescence Dating and Kinematic Fault Analyses
    (2020) ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    ;
    Scharf, Andreas
    ;
    Mattern, Frank
    ;
    Forman, Steven
    For the first time, Quaternary thrusts are documented within the Central Oman Mountains to the northwest of the Jabal Akhdar Dome. Thrusts with a throw of up to 1.1 m displace Quaternary alluvial fan conglomerates. These conglomerates have an Optical Stimulate Luminescence (OSL) age of 159 ± 7.9 ka BP and were deposited during MIS 6 (Marine Isotope Stage). The thrusts occur in two sets. Sets 1 and 2 formed during NE/SW and NW/SE shortening, respectively. Set-1-thusts correlate with the present-day stress field of NE/SW shortening which is related to subduction in the Makran Subduction Zone, and they strike parallel to the main continuous fold axis of the Jabal Akhdar and Hawasina windows. Set-2-thrusts correspond to NW/SE shortening and Plio-Pleistocene contractional structures in the southwestern Jabal Akhdar Dome. Set-2-thrusts are probably related to local variations of the present-day stress field originating from the Musandam area which is a part of the Zagros Collision Zone. Both thrust sets mimic the main thrust directions (NW/SE and NE/SW) within the Permo-Mesozoic allochthonous units (Semail Ophiolite, Hawasina napps) of the larger study area. The investigated thrusts imply some reactivation of the Hawasina and Semail thrusts due to far-field stress either from the Makran Subduction Zone and/or the Zagros Collision Zone. The ongoing tectonic activity of this part of the Oman Mountains, which has been considered of moderate activity, is for first time identified by structural data as contractional.
    Scopus© Citations 3  58  60
  • Publication
    Searching for a Martian soil simulant in UAE & Al Hajar Mountains-First simulants CUOS and MUOS
    (2021) ;
    Fikri, Mira
    ;
    Alhazba, Ali
    ;
    Pracejus, Bernhard
    ;
    Fernini, Illias
    ;
    Manousakis, Antonios
    ;
    Suleiman, Bashir
    ;
    Shameer, Mohamed
    ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    This study presents the first results for creating a Martian soil simulant from rocks in UAE and Al Hajar mountains including Sultanate of Oman. The Martian soil composition is now well known from rover missions and it is a regolith of oceanic crust composition (basaltic). The presence of the most extensive oceanic crust in parts Al Hajar mountains (Semail Ophiolites) is a triggering fact to search the possibility to create Martian soil simulants. Inhere we have collected 13 samples from volcanic basalts, gabbro harzburgite laterites and we assessed the mineral composition. We demonstrate the mixing process of the various rocks to create soil simulants. We have created two simulants, CUOS and MUOS following the compositions of Curiosity Mission measurements and MMS-1 soil simulant supplied by the Martian Garden company. The CUOS soil simulant showed moderate to good fitting in the mineralogy with the Curiosity Mission analysis in Rocknest Portage, while we were not able to attain similar mineralogical composition between MUOS and MMS-1 due to lower plagioclase content in our samples.
      15
  • Publication
    Terrace agriculture in a mountainous arid environment – A study of soil quality and regolith provenance: Jabal Akhdar (Oman)
    (2020) ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    ;
    Al Kindi, Sumaya Salim
    ;
    Al Saadi, Sara Kalifah
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    Al Shaibani, Ahmed Abdul Raoof Ali
    ;
    Scharf, Andreas
    ;
    Mattern, Frank
    ;
    Harrower, Michael J.
    In the Sultanate of Oman remnants of deteriorating terrace agricultural systems offer important insights into long-term human adaptation in the arid tropics. Irrigation and terrace agriculture in the mountainous Jabal Akhdar region reveal historic agricultural practices in a rugged, high elevation context. The present study examines soil quality and regolith provenance in abandoned agricultural soil terraces. Three soil profiles in each of the Villages of Hadash and Wijma were excavated and analyzed. Physical, chemical and mineralogical analyses were conducted for all soil horizons. In addition, six other soils, 3 possible soil parent rocks (regolith) and soil’s bedrock were collected. Soil ages were constrained by 14C assays and stable isotope, (13C and 18O) on the bulk carbonates in the calcrete (caliche). The results demonstrate that both sites display poor soil quality with very low average total organic carbon (TOC) (6.2–5.0 g kg−1) and mean weight diameter (MWD; 0.27–0.48 mm), with low water stable aggregate content (< 42%). All the geochemical, mineralogical and the thin section analyses show that the soils exhibit unique characteristics that differ from those of other sediments (possible parent regolith) and soils in the vicinity. The finding of ostracod shells in the soil terraces in both areas and 14C dating of calcrete (10.193 ± 30–13.887 ± 40 a BP) indicate that regolith was human-transported to terraces to create soil. The 14C ages of the bulk carbonates match well with a dry period of high calcite precipitation contemporaneous to the Younger Dryas. The Hadash and Wijma soil terraces are located ~45 km away from each other, but still display significant similarities in terms of regolith provenance and soil development and were likely filled with regolith from the same source. These results offer new perspective on agricultural terrace development and oasis agriculture in a rugged, high-elevation, arid environment.
    Scopus© Citations 3  108  60