Canal Forgues, Eric
Equity, International Cooperation, and Global Public Health: Use of the Common but Differentiated Responsibilities Principle in the Fight against COVID-19
2022, Hamrouni, Maia-Oumeima, Canal Forgues, Eric
During pandemics, in which harm is universal, states find themselves under an obligation to cooperate within a global solidarity framework. However, because they do not have the same set of capabilities, their obligations should be differentiated and based on equity and distributive justice. As an effective tool of States’ foreign policy, health diplomacy is being used by developing countries according to different priorities and interests. After a few months of relative calm, COVID-19 still poses a major challenge for African and Middle Eastern economies and societies where the vaccination rates are low across the board with healthcare systems in poor shape. If some Gulf countries can be considered exceptions due to active lockdowns, mobility restrictions, and considerable testing, their engagement abroad to help contain the pandemic, especially in North Africa, shows that, if the spirit of cooperation and justice is well taken care of at the regional level, this is not the case at the international level, where global health cooperation would clearly benefit from the application of a type of differentiated treatment such as the one provided by the Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) principle.
Greywater reuse in the water-scarce Gulf Region
2019, Canal Forgues, Eric
Treated wastewater has emerged in many countries as a component of the water stream and a way to supplement, primarily, landscape and agricultural irrigation. Several European and Asian states have, in addition, promoted the use of greywater in the interior of buildings. Regulations for greywater reuse are, by and large, not in place and quality standards for different types of application are in evolution. At the same time constructed wetlands as stand-Alone or as part of the wastewater treatment system have shown promise as a way to improve wastewater effluent, while upgrading ecosystem and aesthetic aspects of a site. Gulf countries, such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are faced with natural water scarcity, exorbitant water demands, beyond their renewable resources and desalination capacities, overloaded wastewater treatment systems that have resulted in releases of untreated wastewater in the marine environment, and increasing populations and expanded economic activities that would further accentuate existing water problems. The current article discusses these issues and, given the public reluctance in the UAE to accept interior greywater reuse, it focuses on the applicability of constructed wetlands in the Gulf region and their potential to enhance irrigation streams and landscape appeal.