Now showing 1 - 10 of 35
  • Publication
    Relative Sea-Level Changes on the Southwestern Arabian Gulf since the Last Glacial Maximum
    ( 2022) ; ;
    Damien Arhan
    Several works have been carried out regarding Late Pleistocene–Holocene sea-level changes in the Arabian Gulf. Nevertheless, a global and regional approach is still lacking, and some critical issues remain unsolved. In this paper, a review and a reinterpretation of all published data regarding sea-level changes in the area have been completed and compared with new results obtained from fieldworks carried out in Failaka Island, Kuwait, and in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. This work relies mostly on studying geomorphological sea-level indicators, such as beach rocks and beach ridges besides combining archaeological data. Results show different trends in vertical movement within the studied area since the Last Glacial Maximum, which cannot be explained alone by the existing sea-level model, implying different, specific and local factors, such as tectonic deformations and diapirism.
      52  2
  • Publication
    Holocene relative sea-level variations and archeological implications, Abu Dhabi western region, United Arab Emirates
    ( 2020) ; ;
    Damien, Arhan
    New results from fieldwork in the western region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi showed meaningful differences in relative sea-level variations during Holocene and recorded unknown late marine highstands. These dynamics may have induced important environmental changes and affected human settlement. Surveys have been carried out in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in order to construct local sea-level variations. These results rely on identifying, characterizing, and dating sea-level indicators and particularly beachrocks. Two main areas were studied: Ghagha island and Ras Khumays peninsula. Data obtained from our surveys highlight significant differences and suggest local processes that need to be understood. From an archeological perspective, this work helps to better understand human settlement dynamic through the Holocene.
    Scopus© Citations 7  179  3
  • Publication
    Pleistocene uplift evidences and geomorphological processes, along the Daghmar-Dibbab coastal area, (NE Oman)
    ( 2018) ; ;
    Moraetis, Daniel
    ;
    Scharf, Andreas
    The study coastal area between Daghmar and Dibab (NE Oman) was uplifted up to 200 m due to different tectonic processes which can be detected on different elevations of the coastal teracces cascading. The teracces formed due to Neogene to Quaternary tectonic movements which continued into the Upper Pleistocene and may be active during the Holocene. The combination of methods such as geodatabase creation, multi-criteria analysis of the landforms through the processing of the study's area DEM, field work-samplings and laboratory analysis (XRF, thin sections, dating's, OSL-14C), combined with semi-automated geomorphological mapping and the differential GPS profiles and measurements, and SAR interferometry (InSAR), contributed in the data processing. The results of the multi proxy and interdisciplinary methodological approach are used as tools for understanding the geomorphological evolution of the Neogene to Quaternary landscape, where landforms are presented as indicators of the area's evolution and define the processes that formed the current situation of the relief. At least three tectonic terraces were detected. A karstified planation surface of Eocene rocks is well developed. This planation surface is attached to the marineterraces and marks an elevation of 160-135m. The mapped terraces (depending on the locations) are at altitudes of about 120-90m. (T3), 75-45 m. (T2) and 35-20 m. (T1) with their foreheads (cliffs) vary in elevations from 15 to 30m. The preliminary results of this study area indicate an along strike the terraces, divided into different at least two tectonic blocks, with estimated uplift rate from 2.3mm/year (northern part) to 2.9 mm/year (southern part) respectively. The blocks are separated by perpendicular to the terraces striking faults. However, the kinematic of faults ,i.e. normal, reverse or strike-slip, could not be estimates Uplift and the sedimentary cover of the terraces (e.g. conglomerates, screes) confirm a swift transformation of the coastline area form at least the MIS 3 (24-59 ka) until the mid-late Holocene, accepting the global sea level chnanges.
      74  1
  • Publication
    Geomorphological changes in the coastal area of Farasan Al-Kabir Island (Saudi Arabia) since mid Holocene based on a multi-proxy approach
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2018) ; ;
    Koukousioura, O.
    ;
    Triantaphyllou, M.
    ;
    Vandarakis, D.
    ;
    Marion de Procé, S.
    ;
    Chondraki, V.
    ;
    Kapsimalis, V.
    The geomorphological evolution of the southeastern coastal area of Farasan Al-Kabir Island (Saudi Arabia) is revealed by the mapping of modern landforms and a multi-proxy and high spatial resolution study including grain size, particulate organic carbon, mineralogy, element geochemistry, benthic foraminifera analysis and radiocarbon dating of a 3.3-m long sediment core. The modern geomorphological features comprise a variety of arid landforms, such as plateau, cliffs and pediments of Pleistocene coral limestones, playa depressions located on plateau surfaces, alluvial fans, butte and sandy beaches. The mid Holocene evolution of the borehole area is resulted from the detailed analysis of five sedimentary units detected along the core Matar-1, and includes three distinct stages: (a) from 5253 ± 223 y cal BP to 3138 ± 223 y cal BP, carbonate coarse-grained material consisting of coral fragments, molluscs, calcareous algae and benthic foraminifera are deposited on a shallow marine fringing reefal platform, which becomes progressively a nearshore backreef (around 3675 ± 215 y cal BP), and later (around 3138 ± 223 y cal BP) a reef ramp; (b) since 3040 ± 220 y cal BP the borehole area obtains the characteristics of a high-energy beach that receives increasing inputs of terrigenous material; (c) subsequently, a supratidal backshore setting is established influenced mostly by terrestrial processes and occasionally by marine processes, as it is indicated by the decreasing and sometimes sporadic presence of benthic foraminifera, and recently, a sedimentary veneer consisting of terrigenous, carbonate and evaporite material is formed by terrestrial, mainly wadi and aeolian, processes. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA
    Scopus© Citations 6  191
  • Publication
    Maritime delimitation in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua) expert opinion
    ( 2017) ;
    Gutiérrez, Francisco
    1. On 25 February 2014, the Republic of Costa Rica (hereinafter “Costa Rica”) filed an Application with the International Court of Justice (hereinafter “the Court”) against the Republic of Nicaragua (hereinafter “Nicaragua”), requesting the Court “to determine the complete course of a single maritime boundary between all the maritime areas appertaining, respectively, to Costa Rica and to Nicaragua in the Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean, on the basis of international law”. 2. Costa Rica “further request[ed] the Court to determine the precise geographical co-ordinates of the single maritime boundaries in the Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean”. 3. In the Memorial, Costa Rica claims that the starting-point of the maritime delimitation between the Parties on the Caribbean side is “on the right bank of the San Juan River at its mouth” (para. 4.13). In the Counter-Memorial, Nicaragua contends that the starting-point is situated at the extremity of Punta de Castilla, near the north-eastern corner of Harbor Head Lagoon (para. 3.48), 3.59 km east of that suggested by Costa Rica. 4. The Court, considering that there were certain factual matters relating to the state of the coast between the point suggested by Costa Rica and the point suggested by Nicaragua in their pleadings as the starting-point of the maritime boundary in the Caribbean Sea, which might be relevant for the purpose of settling the dispute submitted to it, and that, with regard to such matters, it would benefit from an expert opinion, decided, in an Order dated 31 May 2016, that “[a]n expert opinion shall be obtained, which will be entrusted to two independent experts appointed by Order of the President of the Court after hearing the Parties”. 5. In its Order of 31 May 2016, the Court also decided that: “(2) The experts referred … above shall visit the site. They shall advise the Court regarding the state of the coast between the point suggested by Costa Rica and the point suggested by Nicaragua in their pleadings as the starting-point of the maritime boundary in the Caribbean Sea, and in particular answer the following questions: (a) What are the geographical co-ordinates of the point at which the right bank of the San Juan River meets the sea at the low-water line? (b) What are the geographical co-ordinates of the land point which most closely approximates to that identified by the first Alexander Award as the starting-point of the land boundary? (c) Is there a bank of sand or any maritime feature between the points referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b) above? If so, what are their physical characteristics? In particular, are these features, or some of them, permanently above water, even at high tide? Is Los Portillos/Harbor Head Lagoon separated from the sea? (d) To what extent is it possible, or probable, that the area concerned will undergo major physical changes in the short and long term?” 6. The authors of the present Report were appointed by an Order of the President of the Court dated 16 June 2016.
      286  4
  • Publication
    Paleochannels of Zerafshan Delta (Boukhara oasis, Uzbekistan): First Luminescence datings
    (Elsevier Masson SAS, 2017) ;
    Rante, R.
    ;
    Porto, E.
    ;
    Zink, A.J.C.
    An ongoing study on the Zerafshan delta, which now forms the double oasis of Bukhara and Qaraqöl, provides an understanding of urban evolution in a semi-arid environment linked to water resources management. In order to determine the chronology of the paleo-channels, a first series of OSL datings was undertaken. With the exception of one branch dating from the last glacial maximum, the others were active from the Neolithic to the early Bronze Age, with a general movement from north-east to south-west. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS
      74
  • Publication
    Multiproxy paleoenvironmental reconstruction: the Piraeus Coastal Plain case study
    ( 2016) ; ;
    E, J-p, Goiran
    The joint application of benthic foraminifera, pollen and NPPs and magnetic sus-ceptibility analyses in Piraeus coastal plain deposits resulted in the detailed study of palaeoenvironmental evolution of the area during almost the last 9000 years and the distinction of five lithostratigraphical-paleoenvironmental units and subunits. Com-bined results of our analyses features the occurrence of an inner lagoon (unit Aa) followed by an open lagoon (Unit Ab) depositional environment that was trans-formed to a shallow marine paleoenvironment with lagoonal features (Unit B) after 7800 BP. Since about 4800 BP a closed oligohaline lagoon (Unit C) used for graz-ing, occurred in the area, while after 2800 BP a marshy oligohaline depositional environment (Unit D) and signs of intensive agricultural activities are evidenced. The very good correlation of benthic foraminiferal, palynological and magnetic sus-ceptibility data and resulted indices is indicative of the potential of the applied methodologies as a paleoenvironmental tool box. Περίληψη Η μελέτη της λεπτομερούς παλαιοπεριβαλλοντικής εξέλιξης για τα τελευταία περίπου 9000 χρόνια βασίστηκε σε ανάλυση των βενθονικών τρηματοφόρων, των γυρεόκοκκων και «άλλων» παλυνόμορφων και της μαγνητικής επιδεκτικότητας των αποθέσεων της παράκτιας πεδιάδας του Πειραιά. Διακρίθηκαν πέντε λιθοστρωματογραφικές-παλαιοπεριβαλλοντικές ενότητες και υποενότητες, στις οποίες καταγράφετε η εξέλιξη της περιοχής από μία αρχικά κλειστή ολιγόαλη λιμνοθάλασσα (Unit Aa) αρχικά σε μια ανοικτή (Unit Ab) και στη συνέχεια, περίπου 7800 έτη πριν από σήμερα σε ένα ρηχό θαλάσσιο περιβάλλον (Unit B). Περίπου πριν από 4800 έτη πριν από σήμερα στην περιοχή υπήρχε μία ολιγόαλη λιμνοθάλασσα (Unit C), την οποία οι κάτοικοι της περιοχής χρησιμοποιούσαν ως βοσκότοπο, ενώ μετά το 2800 έτη πριν από σήμερα τα στοιχεία μας δηλώνουν την ύπαρξη ενός ολιγόαλου έλους (Unit D), αλλά και σημαντικές αγροτικές δραστηριότητες στην περιοχή. Η εξαιρετική συσχέτιση των αποτελεσμάτων των επιμέρους μεθόδων ανασύστασης του παλαιοπεριβάλλοντος που χρησιμοποιήθηκαν είναι ενδεικτική των δυνατοτήτων εφαρμογής τους ως μια συντονισμένη παλαιοπεριβαλλοντική εργαλειοθήκη. Λέξεις κλειδιά: βενθονικά τρηματοφόρα, γυρεόκοκκοι, άλλα παλυνόμορφα μαγνητική επιδεκτικότητα, Ολόκαινο.
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  • Publication
    The Role of Catastrophic Floods Generated by Collapse of Natural Dams Since the Neolithic in the Oases of Bukhara and Qaraqöl: Preliminary Results
    ( 2016) ; ;
    Dupays, Malvina
    ;
    Mirzaakhmedov, Djamal
    ;
    Zink, Antoine
    ;
    Brunet, Frédérique
    ;
    Rante, Rocco
    ;
    Vella, Claude
    ;
    Porto, Elisa
    ;
    ;
    Andrieu-Ponnel, Valerie
    ;
    Cez, Lucie
    The history of the civilizations of the oases of Bukhara and Qaraqöl (south-eastern Uzbekistan) since the Neolithic in relation to environmental changes is studied by the French/Uzbekistan Archaeological Mission in Bukhara 1 following pioneering Russian studies 2 . Using a methodology tested in Afghanistan, the geoarchaeological side of the program focused on the drawing of a regional geomorphological map then on the identification, mapping and dating of the paleochannels of the river Zerafshan. We established the chronology of several generations of fluvial channels in relation to archaeological settlements of different eras (Early Neolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age and Islamic period) and with optically stimulated luminescence dating of alluvial deposits. Based on preliminary results of these OSL dates we propose and discuss a regional environmental reconstruction. We hypothesize that the main cause of avulsion could be catastrophic floods generated by collapse of natural dams in the upper part of the Zerafshan River.
      53  1