Now showing 1 - 10 of 25
- PublicationA micromorphological assessment of anthropogenic features in pre-Columbian French Guiana dark soils (FGDS): First results(E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 2014)
;Cammas, C. ; ;Todisco, D.Brancier, J.In order to document site formation processes at the microscale and to characterise pre-Columbian French Guiana dark soils (FGDS), micromorphology was performed at three sites. For the first time it was possible (i) to microscopically characterise pre-Columbian Anthrosols in different physical contexts and (ii), to identify anthropogenic features associated with past human occupation. Microfeatures of the Holocene alluvial terrace of the lower Maroni River witnessed (i) several episodes of clay enrichment and/or redistribution, (ii) seasonal waterlogging, and (iii), post-depositional biological activity. Clay enrichment and organic matter inputs together with biological activity processes might have alternated, probably in relation to vegetal cover and/or anthropogenic activities. On top of the alluvial terrace, bioturbated dark layers are enriched in fine brown organic matter and charcoals. Cumulic soil development was favoured when successive sediment inputs due to episodic flooding and/or overland flow was possible (Chemin Saint Louis site). On a lateritic hill, under rainforest, at the MC87 ring-ditched mountain (Montagnes Couronnées or Crowned Mountain), microscale identification of yellowish unburnt oxic B horizon aggregates together with anthropogenic features related to fire such as charcoals and burnt soil fragments (rubefied and dark brown aggregates) stress that lateritic soil acted as a support for activities in the enclosure, and as reworked material in the ditch. These components could result from clearance for settlement, agricultural management and cultivation, or domestic activities. The obtained results allow first comparisons to be drawn between pre-Columbian FGDS and Brazilian dark earths (BDE). With the exception of a similarity in colour, the former is revealed to be less rich in anthropogenic components with an absence of phosphatic elements such as bones. © 2014 Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany. Scopus© Citations 8 60
- PublicationDynamics of human settlements ensuing from river transformation and changes in commercial behaviour: The birth of the “North-eastern Silk Road”(Elsevier Ltd, 2016)
;Rante, R. ;Mirzaakhmedov, D.This article focuses on the causes and dynamics of the origin of the caravan path linking Iranian cities to those of Central Asia from the northeast, to be more precise linking Nishapur and Merv to Bukhara and further to Samarkand, and thus overall linking Iran to China. It proposes to elucidate the causes and effects, which occurred after the appearance of what we could call the main arm of the Silk Road. After an analysis of the historical sources mentioning caravan routes crossing eastern Iran, Merv and Central Asia, this article presents the recent geo-archaeological results of the Archaeological Mission of the Bukhara Oasis (MAFOUB). Recent geomorphological discoveries have brought to light important morphological changes of the Zerafšan delta, to which are imputed major changes in human settlements and behaviours. By the 4th century BCE a huge human occupation of the oasis took place, which slightly later engendered a dynamic of massive urbanisation, rendering possible the connections between China and the Mediterranean Sea directly crossing the Bukhara Oasis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Scopus© Citations 2 169
- PublicationEarly oleiculture or native wild Olea in eastern Maghreb: New pollen data from the sebkhalagoon Halk el Menjel (Hergla, Central Tunisia)(Maney Publishing, 2015)
;Lebreton, V. ;Jaouadi, S. ;Mulazzani, S. ;Boujelben, A. ;Belhouchet, L. ;Gammar, A.M. ;Combourieu-Nebout, N. ;Saliège, J.-F. ;Karray, M.R.Pollen analyses from the sebkha-lagoon Halk El Menjel document the vegetation history in Central Tunisia, linked to climate change since the Middle Holocene. Steppes are the main biomes developed under semi-arid conditions between 4965 ± 35 and 3410 ± 40 BP. At 4365 ± 50 BP Pistacia is replaced by Olea and high representation of Olea pollen grains are reported between 4365 ± 50 and 3410 ± 40 BP, illustrating a humid episode at the Mid-to-Late Holocene transition. Thus, the semi-arid area of Central Tunisia could correspond to the native biome for oleasters at the beginning of the Late Holocene. Early olive cultivation is not yet evidenced in the Neolithic sites of the eastern Maghreb, and the Phoenicians are assumed to have introduced olive cultivars in Tunisia. However, an early cultivation of Olea from local native oleaster and dissemination of native cultivars in Central Tunisia can be hypothesised even if it has to be still demonstrated with further archaeological and archaeobotanical evidences. © 2015 Association for Environmental Archaeology. Scopus© Citations 13 201
- PublicationEvidence for early irrigation at Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before the advent of farming villages(2016)
;Wattez, Julia ;Desruelles, Stéphane ;Eddargach, Wassel ;Cable, Charlotte ; ;Beuzen-Waller, Tara ;Cammas, Cecilia ;Martin, Chloé ;Tengberg, Margareta ;Murray, AndrewThornton, ChristopherDecades of archaeological research in southeastern Arabia (Oman and the UAE) have provided a good understanding of the evolution of human societies in this arid region, with the transition from mobile pastoralism to settled agricultural villages occurring at the start of the Hafit period (ca. 3100–2700 BCE). The delayed adoption of farming, ceramics, mudbrick architecture, metallurgy, and other technologies until the start of the 3rd millennium BCE has been a particularly salient feature of this region relative to its neighbours in Mesopotamia, southern Iran, and northwestern South Asia. However, recent geoarchaeological research at the World Heritage Site of Bat, situated within the Wadi Sharsah valley in northwest Oman, has provided evidence of irrigation practices that have been dated to the early-mid 4th millennium BCE. While direct evidence of farming from this early period remains elusive, the presence of irrigated fields at this time raises new questions about the supposedly mobile pastoralist groups of the Arabian Neolithic and the beginning of farming practices in the region Scopus© Citations 15 180
- PublicationGeomorphological changes in the coastal area of Farasan Al-Kabir Island (Saudi Arabia) since mid Holocene based on a multi-proxy approachThe geomorphological evolution of the southeastern coastal area of Farasan Al-Kabir Island (Saudi Arabia) is revealed by the mapping of modern landforms and a multi-proxy and high spatial resolution study including grain size, particulate organic carbon, mineralogy, element geochemistry, benthic foraminifera analysis and radiocarbon dating of a 3.3-m long sediment core. The modern geomorphological features comprise a variety of arid landforms, such as plateau, cliffs and pediments of Pleistocene coral limestones, playa depressions located on plateau surfaces, alluvial fans, butte and sandy beaches. The mid Holocene evolution of the borehole area is resulted from the detailed analysis of five sedimentary units detected along the core Matar-1, and includes three distinct stages: (a) from 5253 ± 223 y cal BP to 3138 ± 223 y cal BP, carbonate coarse-grained material consisting of coral fragments, molluscs, calcareous algae and benthic foraminifera are deposited on a shallow marine fringing reefal platform, which becomes progressively a nearshore backreef (around 3675 ± 215 y cal BP), and later (around 3138 ± 223 y cal BP) a reef ramp; (b) since 3040 ± 220 y cal BP the borehole area obtains the characteristics of a high-energy beach that receives increasing inputs of terrigenous material; (c) subsequently, a supratidal backshore setting is established influenced mostly by terrestrial processes and occasionally by marine processes, as it is indicated by the decreasing and sometimes sporadic presence of benthic foraminifera, and recently, a sedimentary veneer consisting of terrigenous, carbonate and evaporite material is formed by terrestrial, mainly wadi and aeolian, processes. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA
Scopus© Citations 6 209
- PublicationGeomorphological evolution and paleoenveronment reconstruction in the northeastern part of lemnos Island (North Aegean Sea)The area where the study was made is located in the northeastern coast of Lemnos Island (Greece- North Aegean Sea). This area covers the archaeological settlement of Hephestia which is located in the north part of Purnia Gulf and the coastal area of Alyki Lagoon, which is located in the southeast part of Lemnos coast. The archaeological importance of this area is pointed out not only by its archaeological remains but also by its significant location. The most important site which has been discovered close Hephestia is Poliochni. This is an ancient city considered to have the same date with Troy. The excavations of archaeological site of Hephestia indicate continuous human presence from Late Bronze Age till Byzantine time. The study of the eustatic sea level oscillation in correlation with the neotectonic regimes and die geomorphological observadons, and also the analyses of the deposed sediments, helps us to make a palaeogeographycal reconstruction of the landscape and its impotence to human societies. Therefore, detailed geomorphological mapping, micromorphological, sedimentological and micropaleontological studies of the Holocene coastal deposits have been accomplished. Six boreholes at Alyki lagoon were drilled at selected locations, the deepest one reaches a depth of 11m, and two other boreholes were drilled in Hephestia. The stratigraphy of the late Holocene sediments was studied in detail and samples collected from selected sedimentary layers, were analysed by using micropaleontological techniques. The calculated age from the boreholes gives dates between 5100 B.C. till 820 A.D. Twenty samples of shells and roots were dated using the AMS radiocarbon method in Lyon C14 Laboratory. Geomorphological mapping was carried out using topographic maps at scale of 1:50.000, geological map at a scale of 1:50.000 and observations on the field. Landforms of the coastal alluvial plain, in die shoreline and in die inland were marked and recorded at a scale of 1:50.000. Sea level rise along the interaction of landscape evolution and the impact of human civilization were concluded.
- PublicationHolocene lithostratigraphy and its implementation in the geoarchaeological research of the Athenian Basin, GreeceThe Athenian Basin is a very interesting area from an archaeological point of view, since it is inhabited from Neolithic time. The human impact on the landscape is shown by the ancient constructions such as the Long Walls and the canalization of the rivers in the area of the Athenian Basin and Piraeus. The aim of the study is to detect the paleogeographical evolution of this area. In order to manipulate all the available information obtained from literature review (topographic maps, geological maps, ancient maps and references) and the stratigraphic data from 227 boreholes from the Athenian Basin, a GIS database was established. After the interpretation of the stratigraphy from the boreholes, six lithostratigraphic units were defined. Maps and 3D models were designed to represent the succession of the lithostratigraphy of each period. Paleogeographic maps were created in order to represent the landscape for each lithostratigraphic unit of the Athenian basin, and extract results for the temporal and spatial changes of the paleo-landscape and the involvement of the human impact on the depositional process in the Athenian Basin during Holocene. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Scopus© Citations 1 161
- PublicationHolocene relative sea-level variations and archeological implications, Abu Dhabi western region, United Arab EmiratesNew results from fieldwork in the western region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi showed meaningful differences in relative sea-level variations during Holocene and recorded unknown late marine highstands. These dynamics may have induced important environmental changes and affected human settlement. Surveys have been carried out in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in order to construct local sea-level variations. These results rely on identifying, characterizing, and dating sea-level indicators and particularly beachrocks. Two main areas were studied: Ghagha island and Ras Khumays peninsula. Data obtained from our surveys highlight significant differences and suggest local processes that need to be understood. From an archeological perspective, this work helps to better understand human settlement dynamic through the Holocene.
Scopus© Citations 7 241 41
- PublicationMaritime delimitation in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua) expert opinion(2017)
;Gutiérrez, Francisco1. On 25 February 2014, the Republic of Costa Rica (hereinafter “Costa Rica”) filed an Application with the International Court of Justice (hereinafter “the Court”) against the Republic of Nicaragua (hereinafter “Nicaragua”), requesting the Court “to determine the complete course of a single maritime boundary between all the maritime areas appertaining, respectively, to Costa Rica and to Nicaragua in the Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean, on the basis of international law”. 2. Costa Rica “further request[ed] the Court to determine the precise geographical co-ordinates of the single maritime boundaries in the Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean”. 3. In the Memorial, Costa Rica claims that the starting-point of the maritime delimitation between the Parties on the Caribbean side is “on the right bank of the San Juan River at its mouth” (para. 4.13). In the Counter-Memorial, Nicaragua contends that the starting-point is situated at the extremity of Punta de Castilla, near the north-eastern corner of Harbor Head Lagoon (para. 3.48), 3.59 km east of that suggested by Costa Rica. 4. The Court, considering that there were certain factual matters relating to the state of the coast between the point suggested by Costa Rica and the point suggested by Nicaragua in their pleadings as the starting-point of the maritime boundary in the Caribbean Sea, which might be relevant for the purpose of settling the dispute submitted to it, and that, with regard to such matters, it would benefit from an expert opinion, decided, in an Order dated 31 May 2016, that “[a]n expert opinion shall be obtained, which will be entrusted to two independent experts appointed by Order of the President of the Court after hearing the Parties”. 5. In its Order of 31 May 2016, the Court also decided that: “(2) The experts referred … above shall visit the site. They shall advise the Court regarding the state of the coast between the point suggested by Costa Rica and the point suggested by Nicaragua in their pleadings as the starting-point of the maritime boundary in the Caribbean Sea, and in particular answer the following questions: (a) What are the geographical co-ordinates of the point at which the right bank of the San Juan River meets the sea at the low-water line? (b) What are the geographical co-ordinates of the land point which most closely approximates to that identified by the first Alexander Award as the starting-point of the land boundary? (c) Is there a bank of sand or any maritime feature between the points referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b) above? If so, what are their physical characteristics? In particular, are these features, or some of them, permanently above water, even at high tide? Is Los Portillos/Harbor Head Lagoon separated from the sea? (d) To what extent is it possible, or probable, that the area concerned will undergo major physical changes in the short and long term?” 6. The authors of the present Report were appointed by an Order of the President of the Court dated 16 June 2016. 318 69