Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    An ensemble neural network approach to forecast Dengue outbreak based on climatic condition
    (2023)
    Panja, Madhurima
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    Nadim. Sk Shahid
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    Ghosh, Indrajit
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    Kumar, Uttam
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    Liu, Nan
    Dengue fever is a virulent disease spreading over 100 tropical and subtropical countries in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. This arboviral disease affects around 400 million people globally, severely distressing the healthcare systems. The unavailability of a specific drug and ready-to-use vaccine makes the situation worse. Hence, policymakers must rely on early warning systems to control intervention-related decisions. Forecasts routinely provide critical information for dangerous epidemic events. However, the available forecasting models (e.g., weather-driven mechanistic, statistical time series, and machine learning models) lack a clear understanding of different components to improve prediction accuracy and often provide unstable and unreliable forecasts. This study proposes an ensemble wavelet neural network with exogenous factor(s) (XEWNet) model that can produce reliable estimates for dengue outbreak prediction for three geographical regions, namely San Juan, Iquitos, and Ahmedabad. The proposed XEWNet model is flexible and can easily incorporate exogenous climate variable(s) confirmed by statistical causality tests in its scalable framework. The proposed model is an integrated approach that uses wavelet transformation into an ensemble neural network framework that helps in generating more reliable long-term forecasts. The proposed XEWNet allows complex non-linear relationships between the dengue incidence cases and rainfall; however, mathematically interpretable, fast in execution, and easily comprehensible. The proposal's competitiveness is measured using computational experiments based on various statistical metrics and several statistical comparison tests. In comparison with statistical, machine learning, and deep learning methods, our proposed XEWNet performs better in 75% of the cases for short-term and long-term forecasting of dengue incidence.
      26Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Epicasting: An Ensemble Wavelet Neural Network for forecasting epidemics
    (2023)
    Panja, Madhurima
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    Kumar, Uttam
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    Liu, Nan
    Infectious diseases remain among the top contributors to human illness and death worldwide, among which many diseases produce epidemic waves of infection. The lack of specific drugs and ready-to-use vaccines to prevent most of these epidemics worsens the situation. These force public health officials and policymakers to rely on early warning systems generated by accurate and reliable epidemic forecasters. Accurate forecasts of epidemics can assist stakeholders in tailoring countermeasures, such as vaccination campaigns, staff scheduling, and resource allocation, to the situation at hand, which could translate to reductions in the impact of a disease. Unfortunately, most of these past epidemics exhibit nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics due to their spreading fluctuations based on seasonal-dependent variability and the nature of these epidemics. We analyze various epidemic time series datasets using a maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) based autoregressive neural network and call it Ensemble Wavelet Neural Network (EWNet) model. MODWT techniques effectively characterize non-stationary behavior and seasonal dependencies in the epidemic time series and improve the nonlinear forecasting scheme of the autoregressive neural network in the proposed ensemble wavelet network framework. From a nonlinear time series viewpoint, we explore the asymptotic stationarity of the proposed EWNet model to show the asymptotic behavior of the associated Markov Chain. We also theoretically investigate the effect of learning stability and the choice of hidden neurons in the proposal. From a practical perspective, we compare our proposed EWNet framework with twenty-two statistical, machine learning, and deep learning models for fifteen real-world epidemic datasets with three test horizons using four key performance indicators. Experimental results show that the proposed EWNet is highly competitive compared to the state-of-the-art epidemic forecasting methods.
      8Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Prediction of transportation index for urban patterns in small and medium-sized Indian cities using hybrid RidgeGAN model
    (2023)
    Thottolil, Rahisha
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    Kumar, Uttam
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    The rapid urbanization trend in most developing countries including India is creating a plethora of civic concerns such as loss of green space, degradation of environmental health, scarcity of clean water, rise in air pollution, and exacerbated traffic congestion resulting in significant delays in vehicular transportation. To address the intricate nature of transportation issues, many researchers and planners have analyzed the complexities of urban and regional road systems using transportation models by employing transportation indices such as road length, network density, accessibility, and connectivity metrics. This study addresses the complexities of predicting road network density for small and medium-sized Indian cities that come under the Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) project at a national level. A hybrid framework based on Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) and the CityGAN model is introduced to predict network density using spatial indicators of human settlements. The major goal of this study is to generate hyper-realistic urban patterns of small and medium-sized Indian cities using an unsupervised CityGAN model and to study the causal relationship between human settlement indices (HSIs) and transportation index (network density) using supervised KRR for the real cities. The synthetic urban universes mimic Indian urban patterns and evaluating their landscape structures through the settlement indices can aid in comprehending urban landscape, thereby enhancing sustainable urban planning. We analyzed 503 real cities to find the actual relationship between the urban settlements and their road density. The nonlinear KRR model may help urban planners in deriving the network density for GAN-generated futuristic urban patterns through the settlement indicators. The proposed hybrid process, termed as RidgeGAN model, can gauge the sustainability of urban sprawl tied to infrastructure and transportation systems in sprawling cities. Analysis results clearly demonstrate the utility of RidgeGAN in predicting network density for different kinds of human settlements, particularly for small and medium Indian cities. By predicting future urban patterns, this study can help in the creation of more livable and sustainable areas, particularly by improving transportation infrastructure in developing cities.
      15  1
  • Publication
    Probabilistic AutoRegressive Neural Networks for Accurate Long-Range Forecasting
    (2023)
    Panja, Madhurima
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    Kumar, Uttam
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    Forecasting time series data is a critical area of research with applications spanning from stock prices to early epidemic prediction. While numerous statistical and machine learning methods have been proposed, real-life prediction problems often require hybrid solutions that bridge classical forecasting approaches and modern neural network models. In this study, we introduce a Probabilistic AutoRegressive Neural Network (PARNN), capable of handling complex time series data exhibiting non-stationarity, nonlinearity, non-seasonality, long-range dependence, and chaotic patterns. PARNN is constructed by improving autoregressive neural networks (ARNN) using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) feedback error. Notably, the PARNN model provides uncertainty quantification through prediction intervals and conformal predictions setting it apart from advanced deep learning tools. Through comprehensive computational experiments, we evaluate the performance of PARNN against standard statistical, machine learning, and deep learning models. Diverse real-world datasets from macroeconomics, tourism, epidemiology, and other domains are employed for short-term, medium-term, and long-term forecasting evaluations. Our results demonstrate the superiority of PARNN across various forecast horizons, surpassing the state-of-the-art forecasters. The proposed PARNN model offers a valuable hybrid solution for accurate long-range forecasting. The ability to quantify uncertainty through prediction intervals further enhances the model’s usefulness in various decision-making processes.
      13
  • Publication
    Searching for Heavy-Tailed Probability Distributions for Modeling Real-World Complex Networks
    (2022) ;
    Chattopadhyay, Swarup
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    Das, Suchismita
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    Kumar, Uttam
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    Senthilnath, J.
    Perhaps the most recent controversial topic in network science research is to determine whether real-world complex networks are scale-free or not. Recently, Broido and Clauset [A.D. Broido, A. Clauset, Nature Communication, 10, 1017 (2019)] asserted that the degree distributions of real-world networks are rarely power law under statistical tests. Such complex networks, including social, biological, information, temporal, and brain networks, are often heavy-tailed where the assumption on the scale-free nature of realworld heavy-tailed networks become insignificant as the complex system evolves over time. The failure of power law distribution in fitting the degree distribution data is mainly due to the presence of an identifiable non-linearity within the entire degree distribution in a log-log scale of a complex heavy-tailed network. In this study, we attempt to address this issue by proposing a new class of heavy-tailed probability distributions for modeling the entire degree distributions of complex networks. We introduce a new family of generalized Lomax models (GLM) to capture the non-linearity of these heavy-tailed networks. These newly introduced GLM-type distributions provide better fitting and greater flexibility to the entire node degree distribution of complex networks. Several statistical properties of the proposed model, such as extreme value and inferential statistical properties, are derived into this context. Interestingly, the GLM family belongs to the basin of attraction of Frechet distribution, a heavy-tailed extreme value distribution. Rigorous experimental analysis showcases the excellent performance of the proposed family of distributions while fitting the heavytailed real-world complex networks over fifty real-world datasets in comparison with benchmark probability models. Our results show that GLM-type distributions are not rare, able to model almost 90% of the tested networks accurately compared to benchmark probability models. INDEX TERMS Complex networks, heavy-tailed networks, degree distribution, Lomax distribution, extreme value properties.
      8Scopus© Citations 2  1
  • Publication
    Van der Pol-informed Neural Networks for Multi-step-ahead Forecasting of Extreme Climatic Events
    (2023)
    Dutta, Anurag
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    Panja, Madhurima
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    Kumar, Uttam
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    Hens, Chittaranjan
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    Deep learning has produced excellent results in several applied domains including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, etc. Physics-informed neural networks (PINN) are a new family of deep learning models that combine prior knowledge of physics in the form of high-level abstraction of natural phenomena with data-driven neural networks. PINN has emerged as a flourishing area of scientific computing to deal with the challenges of shortage of training data, enhancing physical plausibility, and specifically aiming to solve complex differential equations. However, building PINNs for modeling and forecasting the dynamics of extreme climatic events of geophysical systems remains an open scientific problem. This study proposes Van der Pol-informed Neural Networks (VPINN), a physics-informed differential learning approach, for modeling extreme nonlinear dynamical systems such as climatic events, exploiting the physical differentials as the physics-derived loss function. Our proposal is compared to state-of-the-art time series forecasting models, showing superior performance.The codes and dataset used for the experiments are made available at https: //github.com/mad-stat/VPINN.
      44  3